(1) Study of Target Customers
The first step in framing advertising process is to know the target customers. Various factors affecting their buying behaviour are studied. These factors can be-their income level, age, sex, education-level, taste, attitude, personality, etc. This knowledge helps the advertiser in framing advertising-message, in selecting media, in scheduling the advertisement, i.e. deciding the appropriate time when advertisement will be shown.
(2) Study of Marketing Environment
The study of various components of marketing environment is conducted. Marketing environment consists of both internal and external factors affecting the business unit. These environmental factors have their impact on various advertising activities of advertising campaign. Factors of internal environment are controllable while factors of external environment are outside the control of a business unit. So advertiser will have to adjust his advertising campaign according to changes in external components of marketing environment.
Internal components of marketing environment can be product, price, place, brand, packaging, etc. External components of marketing environment can be- economic environment, socio-cultural environment, demographic environment, competition, legal and political environment, global environment, etc. All these environmental factors should be kept in mind while designing advertising plan.
(3) Defining Advertising Objectives
The next step in advertising process is to clearly define advertising objectives. Advertising objectives are decided keeping in view the overall marketing objectives of the organisation. Well-defined objectives serve as standard with which actual performance can be compared and evaluated. Broad advertising objectives are:
- To increase sales
- To communicate with target audience.
(4) Determining Advertising Budget
Advertising budget refers to amount set aside for advertising activities for a specific time-period. Determining ad-budget is also known as advertising appropriation. Amount of ad-budget is decided keeping in view the advertising objectives. There are various methods for deciding ad-budget. Main methods for deciding ad-budget are as follows:
- Percentage of Sales Method
- Affordable Method
- Competitive Parity Method
- Objective and Task Method
(5) Selecting Advertising Appeal
Appeal refers to approach used by advertiser for attracting the attention and communicating the message to target audience. Objective of appeal is to arouse the need and desire of the product to the target audience. Main advertising appeals are:
- Rational Appeal
- Emotional Appeal
(6) Selecting Advertising Message
Message refers to what advertiser wants to communicate to its prospective customers through advertisement. Message should be brief, attention getting, distinctive, informative, easy to understand and easy to remember. Message can be verbal or non-verbal/symbolic. Effectiveness of advertising depends upon how messages are designed and framed. Philip Kotler points out that formulating the message requires solving following problems:
- What to say – Message content
- How to say – Message presentation
- Who should say it – Message source
(7) Selecting Media, Media-Mix, Media-Vehicle
After deciding message and advertising appeal, appropriate media is selected. Media is the vehicle that carries advertiser’s message to target audience. It involves three decisions:
- Selecting appropriate media
- Selecting Media-Mix
- Selecting suitable media-vehicle within each selected media
(8) Determining Media Scheduling
It refers to decisions regarding the date and time when advertisement is to appear. Media scheduling starts after selecting media and media-mix. Appropriate time of showing advertisement is that when our target audience are most receptive to advertisement. For example, if ad is to be given for Kid’s product, then it should be given in the afternoon/evening time as in the morning kids will be busy in schools. Media scheduling is done at macro-level and micro-level.
(9) Designing Advertising Copy
After selecting ad-message, ad-appeal, type of media, ad copy is designed to communicate with the target audience. Ad copy will be different for different media. Advertising copy is written or spoken matter including illustrations aimed at conveying some desired message to target customers. Ad-copy includes headlines, sub-headings, message, appeal, illustrations, claims, slogans, pictures, logo, brand-name, name of advertiser, etc. Advertising copy should be attractive, persuasive, informative and believable.
Effective advertising-copy must draw the attention of audience, should suggest the necessity of product to solve different problems, should educate the potential customers regarding method of using the product and uses of product. It should include such phrases or slogans which are easy to remember and above all, it must persuade the buyers to purchase the product or develop the image of product/brand/advertiser.
(10) Execution of Advertisement
Ad-execution refers to release of advertisement through media. After advertisement copy has been designed and tested, it is handed over to media for its execution. Media shows the advertisement at the decided day, time and place. The advertising manager ensures that advertisement has been shown by the media at the decided day, time and place. If advertising manager finds any deviation then he enquires the reason of deviation from media and gives necessary corrective instructions to media.
(11) Evaluation of Advertising Effectiveness
Advertisers measure the effectiveness of advertising to evaluate the worth of spending large amount of money on advertising. It is important to determine how well the advertising campaign is working, by comparing its actual performance against pre-determined advertising objectives. Evaluation of advertising-effectiveness helps the advertiser to justify cost of advertising, to exercise control on advertising, to find out weak points and wastages in advertising.