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Development Class 10 Notes
- Development is the sum total of income plus quality of life. Besides seeking more income one way or another, people also seek things like equal treatment, freedom, security, respect of others etc.
- Different people have different goals in their life. What may be development for one may not be development for another. This can be understood by the following example : To get more electricity, an industrialist may want more dams. But this may submerge the land and disrupt the lives of people who are displaced, such as tribes.
- One common thing among all people is the desire for more income. With this income they buy goods and services for their daily needs. Quality of life depends on non-material things also. Example – A job may give you less pay but may offer regular employment that enhances your sense of security.
- Ideas of development differ at individual and nation l level. For example, a landless rural labourer may desire more days of work and better wages at individual level; but at national level he may want good educational and health facilities in local area.
- The average income can be calculated by dividing national income by the population. It is also called per capita income.
- Standard of living of people in a coun ry depends on their per capita income. Countries with higher per capita income are m re developed than others with less per capita income.
- Education and health also play an important role in the country’s development.
- Infant Mortality Rate (IMF) : It indicates the number of children who die before the age of one ye r, s a proportion of 1000 live children born in that particular year.
- Literacy Rate : It measures the proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age group.
- Net Attendance Ratio : It is the total number of children of age group 6-10 attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.
Human development index indicators
- Life Expectany at Birth : It denotes average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth.
- Gross Enrolment Ratio : It shows enrolment ratio in primary schools, secondary schools and in higher education.
- Per Capita Income : It is calculated in dollars for all countries so that it can be adding all the three indicators and dividing by 3, gives the human development index.
Development Class 10 Notes – NCERT Book Questions
Q.1. Do the following statements mean the same? Justify your answer.
- People have different development goals.
- People have conflicting development goals.
Ans. Both the statements mean the same thing because people may have different development goals which can be conflicting in nature, depending upon their occupation, location and their aspirations.
Q.2. Why do different people have different notions of development? Which of the following explanation is more important and why?
- Because people are different.
- Because life situations of people are different.
Ans. The concept of development essentially depends upon individual perspective.
A person from a rural background would want the focus on latest technique in farming, availability of the state of the art technology, agricultural infrastructure and lesser dependence on monsoon for irrigating his farmland.
Development Class 10 Notes
Q.3. For each of the items given in the following table find out which country is at the top and which is at the bottom.
Table : Some Data Regarding India and Its Neighbours for 2004
|Country||Per capita ($)||Life expectancy at birth||Literacy rate for 15+|
- In case of capita income, Sri Lanka is at the top and Myanm is at the bottom.
- Under the item of life expectancy at birth, Sri Lanka is at the top and Myanmar is at the bottom.
- Under the item of gross enrolment ratio Sri Lanka is t the top and Pakistan is at the bottom.
- Under the item of literacy rate, Sri Lanka is at the top and Bangladesh is at the bottom.
- Under the item of HDI rank in the world, Sri Lanka is at the top and Nepal is at the bottom.
Q.4. Suppose a record shows that the average income in a country has been increasing over a period of time. From this can we conclude that all sections of the economy have become better? Illustrate your answer with an example.
Ans. Rising average income in a country over a period of time may not necessarily mean that all sections of the economy have bec me better because average income fails to explain the criterion of distribution among masses.This can be explained with the help of an example.
In a birthday party if we distribute equal pieces of cake to all children, they will all be happy whereas if we give large proportion of cake to only a few children and leave many of the children with much smaller sizes or no cake at all, most of the children will be unhappy in such a party. Therefore equitable distribution of anything will ensure better satisfaction of all sections of society.
Q.6. Kerala with lower per capital income has a better human development ranking than Punjab. Hence per c pita income in not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.
Ans. Per capital income is an important criterion of development. Countries with higher per capital income are more developed than others. Higher per capital income means better availability of goods and services that everyone requires.
However, per capital income is not the only criterion for development. Other factors like infant mortality rate (IMF) and literacy rate are equally important. Therefore, per capital income along with other development indicators as in human development index, listed above, are used to calculate the overall development of a particular state.
Q.7. “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person.” How is this statement relevant to the discussion of the topic? Discuss.
Ans. The concept of sustainability explains the capacity to use the resources judiciously and maintain their balance. Thus, sustainability is a matter of sharing development opportunity and not the poverty and human deprivation. If the present is miserable and unacceptable to the majority of the world’s people, it must be changed before it is sustained.
Every generation wants to get the maximum benefits from the available resources but it would be disastrous because the available resources will be exhausted at a rapid speed and in such circumstance the future generation will be deprived of such resources. Resources such as mineral wealth, iron, gold, copper, silver etc. are exhaustable; hence we should use them judiciously.
Q.8. Find out present sources of energy used by people in India. What could be possibilities fifty years from now?
Ans. Coal, petroleum products, electricity are some of the present sources of energy used by people in India. Petroleum products and coal are non-renewable sources of energy. These natural resources would be exhausted after a few years if they are not used judiciously. Possibilities for energy sources after fifty years can be nuclear energy from radio-active elements, solar energy, wind energy etc. Wind, sunlight are non-ex austive resources which may be utilized without interruption for years and years.
Q.9. Why is the issue of sustainability important?
Ans. The issue of sustainability is important because it is desire able to raise the level of development but not at the cost of quality of life of the future generations.
The concept of sustainability explains the rationalisation of the use of natural resources in such a manner that what we achieve today should not be at the cost of what ought to be achieved tomorrow.
Sustainable development lays special emphasis on environmental protection.Sustainable development is used for both developed and underdeveloped economies.
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