DNA Full Form is Deoxyribonucleic Acid. DNA is a molecule found in living cells. In other words, it is the hereditary material found in all living organisms. This is the only one chemical, which contains all the mysteries and complexities of life. In the year 1053, DNA was discovered by scientist James Watson & Francis. For his discovery, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1962.
How is DNA structured?
The shape of DNA is like a wavy ladder. It is a 3D structure. They consist of 2 Filament and these Filament form a curved structure all around. DNA molecules are made up of guanine, adenine, thymine, and cytosine, which are called nucleotides. These nucleotides are helpful for the formation of proteins required for cells.
Functions Of DNA
- DNA Finger Printing: Every individual has its own DNA sequence that does not match with others and with it we can easily recognize the individual.
- Genetic Information: It carries genetic information from one generation to the next generation.
- Replication: DNA produces carbon copies through replication. It allows DNA transfer genetic information from old cells to new cells (from one generation to the next generation).
- Transcription: DNA produces RNAs (Ribonucleic Acid) through the process of transcription.
- Cellular Metabolism: It regulates the metabolic reactions of the cells with the help of enzymes, hormones and specific RNAs.
- Development: It controls the development of organisms through internal genetic clock.