Learning Theories Or Theories of Learning
Learning Theories – Hello friends, today we are going to share theories of learning which consist four theories which is given below.
(1) Classical Conditioning Theory
This theory was advocated by a Russian psychologist, Pavlov, in the year 1880. This is an important concept of learning. Pavlov maintained that a person learns a lot with the help of Stimulus-Response Connection. It means that if an individual is excited with the help of some stimulus, there will definitely be some response to that stimulus. It means that there is some relationship between stimulus and resnonse.
In order to prove his concept Pavlov used dogs as his subject of experimentation. In his experiment Pavlov showed the dog a piece of meat and saliva started dropping from its mouth. During the second trial, when Pavlov rang a bell, there was no saliva from the mouth of the dog. Again, he showed the piece of meat while ringing the bell. This action was repeated time and again. After this it was observed that merely the ringing of bell caused the saliva drop from the mouth of the dog. This clearly establishes the fact that the mind of the dog had been conditioned to the fact that the ringing of the bell wil be accompanied with a piece of meat. It was because of this that the mere ringing of the bell resulted in the dropping of saliva.
(2) Operant Conditioning
This theory was advocated by B.F. Skinner. This concept believes that behaviour is a function of its consequences. In this case the word ‘operant’ means that a person works actively in order to create favourable results. A person behaves in a particular way to achieve something. If the consequences of his behaviour happen to be positive, he repeats his behaviour in future. On the contrary, if the consequences of his behaviour are negative, he does not repeat his behaviour in future. This clearly means that an individual learns from the consequences of his behaviour. In this way, it can be said that result and behaviour relation is the essence of the process of learning.
Must Read – Theories Of Learning by wikipedia
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(3) Social Learning ( Theories of Learning )
The propounder of this theory is Albert Bandura. According to Bandura learning is possible through observation and direct experience. This concept stresses the fact that when a person observes the behaviour of other people, he tries to follow them. A person usually observes his parents, colleagues, teachers, friends, successful persons, etc. behaving in different situations and learns from them. All of them appear before him as models. When a person observes them behaving, he mainly keeps his eyes on three things:
(i) What was the problem before them?
(ii) What did they do for it? and
(iii) What were the results?
In this way, the person concerned prepares a map of the whole activity and keeps it in his mind. The person from whom this image has been received becomes his model. Thus the image received becomes a part of his behaviour. If he gets positive results from it, he repeats it, otherwise he abandons such a behaviour. In this way, it can be said that people can learn from others.
(4) Cognitive Learning ( Theories of Learning )
This theory was advocated by Edward C. Tolman. According to him a person by using his cognition correlates the cues and expectations available in the environment and achieves his targets. (Here cognition s understanding of a person about the environment and his own self.) According to Tolman the relation between the cues and expectations makes the learning activity happen.