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Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Concept
- Manufacturing is production of goods in large quantities after processing raw materials to more valuable products.
- Classification of Industries is done on the basis of their main role, capital investment, ownership, source of raw materials and the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods.
- Large Scale Industries employ a large number of labourers.
- Small Scale Industries employ a small number of labourers.
- Heavy Industries use heavy and bulky raw materials.
- Light Industries use light raw materials.
- Manufacturing is considered the backbone of development in general and economic development in particular.
- The NMCC (National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council) was set up when it was felt that, with appropriate policy interventions by the government and renewed efforts by the industry to improve productivity, manufacturing can achieve its target over the next decade.
- Industrial locations are influenced by availability of raw materials, labour, capital, power and market. It is rarely possible to find all these factors available at one place.
- Agro-based industries : Industries based on agricultural raw materials. For example, cotton textiles, jute textiles, woollen textiles, silk textiles, synthetic textiles, sugar industry.
- Cotton textiles : It occupies an unique position in Indian economy, contributes 14% of industtrial production. Provides employment to 35 million persons directly. Earlier the cotton textile industries were located in Maharashtra and Gujarat. Today, they are spread over 80 towns and cities of India. Scarcity of good-quality cotton, obsolete machinery, erratic power supply, low productivity of labour and stiff competition are some of the problems faced by the cotton textiles industry.
- Jute textiles : There are about 70 jute mills in India and most of the jute is produced in West Mainly in the Hugli basin produced in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Assam and Tripura.
- Sugar : There are 460 sugar mills in the country. 50% of them are found in Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra. Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat are also important producers of sugar in the country.
- Mineral-based Industries : Industries using minerals as their raw materials — iron and steel, cement, chemical industries, aluminium smelting, copper smelting, fertiliser industry, etc.
Iron and Steel Industry :
- The iron works of Kulti, Burnpur started local production in 1870.
- The first modern steel plant was set up at Jamshedpur in 1907.
Chemical Industry :
- Heavy inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid, nitric acid, alkalis, caustic soda and soda ash. They are widely spread around the country.
Sulphuric acid is used in the manufacture of fertilisers, synthetic fibres, plastics, paints and dyes.
Soda ash is used in the manufacture of glass, paper, soap and detergents.
- Heavy organic chemicals include petrochemicals which are used in the manufacture of synthetic fibres, synthetic rubber, plastics, dyestuffs, drugs and pharmaceuticals. These chemical plants are located near oil refineries and petrochemical plants.
- The chemical industries contribute 14% of the production of entire manufacturing sector.
Fertiliser Industry :
- The first plant was set up at Ranipet in Tamil Nadu.
- With the setting up of a plant at Sindri by the Fertiliser Corporation of India (FCI) in 1951, the production of fertilisers increased.
- With the onset of the Green Revolution, this industry was set up in Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala.
- Other important producers are Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Bihar, Maharashtra, Assam, West Bengal, Goa, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka.
Manufacturing Industries Class 10
- Automobiles : Commercial vehicles like trucks, passenger buses, cars, motor cycles, scooters, etc., are manufactured in large numbers. India is the second largest producer of three wheelers. The industries producing bicycles, scooters and bicycles are distributed around Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bengaluru.
- Electronic Industry : Bengaluru has emerged as the electronic capital of India. Other major electronic goods producing centres are Hyderabad, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Kanpur, Pune, Lucknow and Coimbatore. Many Software Technology Parks have also developed.
- Industries create four types of pollution, namely air, water, land and noise.
- Air pollution is caused due to the presence of carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide. Dust, fume, mist spray and smoke contain both types of particles.
- Water pollution : Coal, dyes, soaps, pesticides, fertilisers, plastics and rubber are some common pollutants. The principal industries which create water pollution are paper pulp, textiles, chemical, petroleum, refinery, tannery and electroplating.
- Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot-water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.
- Noise pollution means unwanted, extra, noise created due to industrial machineries etc.
- Measures to Control Environmental Degradation :
- Proper fuel selection and utilisation.
- Use of oil instead of coal in the industries.
- Treatment of liquids in three phases :
- Primary treatment by mechanical process.
- Secondary treatment by biological process.
- Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes.
- Pollution of land and soil can be controlled by three activities :
- Collection of wastes from different places.
- Dumping and disposing the wastes by land-filling.
- Recycling of wastes for further use.
Manufacturing Industries Class 10 – NCERT Book Questions
Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below :
(i) Which one of the following industries uses limestone as a raw material?
(a) Aluminium (b) Cement (c) Sugar (d) Jute
(ii) Which one of the following agencies markets steel for the public sector plants?
(a) HAIL (b) SAIL (c) TATA Steel (d) MNCC Ans. (b)
(iii) Which one of the following industries uses bauxite as a raw material?
(a) Aluminium (b) Cement (c) Jute (d) Steel
(iv) Which one of the following industries manufactures telephones, computer, etc?
(a) Steel (b) Electronics
(c) Aluminium (d) Information Technology
Q.2. Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) Why is iron and steel industry termed as basic industry?
Ans. Basic or key industries supply their products as raw materials to other industries to manufacture their goods. Iron and steel industry is termed as a basic industry because
- it produces iron and steel which in turn is used for manufacturing machines, tools and equipments. Machineries and tools are basic for any manufacturing process. Thus, iron and steel industry plays a key role in the development of any manufacturing industry and agriculture.
- iron and steel industry provides raw materials for heavy engineering, automobiles, ship building, manufacturing of railway engines, locomotives, etc. The development of these industries is dependent on the supply of iron and steel. Many of the items used by us in our daily life, from a tiny nail to big railway locomotives, are made of iron.
Manufacturing Industries Class 10
- Describe four physical and four human factors that affect the location of an industry. Ans. Industrial locations are complex in nature. They are influenced by a number of factors that determine their location in region. The physical factors that influence that location of industries are as follows :
- Availability of raw materials — Raw materials for industries range from agricultural products to minerals. Raw material required for the industry must be available cheaply and at close range or at well-linked places. In case of industries using bulky raw materials like iron, bauxite, etc., the ideal location is near the sources of raw materials.
- Power resources — Power, energy or fuel is essential for the working of any industry, for running machineries and as fuel for the furnaces and smelters. So, power resources like coal and electricity must be available in abundance in the vicinity of the site chosen for the industry.
- Water — Water is needed in abundance by almost all industries, e.g. cotton and jute textiles for processing, cleaning and cooling of machineries. So many industries are located near rivers and other water bodies.
- Favourable climate — Climate affects production process, for example, humid climate is suitable for spinning of cotton yarns. The industry must be located in an area where the climate doe snot damage the raw materials or finished products.
Human factors influencing the location of industries are :
- Labour — Cheap and efficient labour must be available in the region surrounding the industry for proper functioning of the industry.
- Capital — Industries require finances in large amounts. For setting up an industry in a chosen site, large amount of cash guarantees and banking facilities are required.
- Market — The goods produced must have a market for their sale. The market influences the demand as well as type of goods produced in a region.
- Transport facilities — Well-linked road, railways or waterways must be available for transfer of raw materials and manufactured products to and from the industrial area.
- How do industries pollute the environment?
How does industrial pollution affect the environment.
Ans. Pollution is a negative effect of industrialisation. It results in degradation of the environment and affects human health, animals, plants and the atmosphere as a whole. It contributes to major environmental problems like land degradation, water scarcity, health hazards and, on a larger scale, global warming and climate change.
Industries are responsible for four types of pollution, namely, air, water, land and noise. Air pollution is caused by presence of high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide, dust, sprays, mist and smoke in the atmosphere due to emission from industrial units. Smoke emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants and burning of fossil fuels in big and small factories that ignore pollution norms cause enormous pollution. Toxic gas leaks from factories are extremely hazardous.
Manufacturing Industries Class 10
Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and affluents discharged into rivers and other water bodies.
The main culprits in this regard are paper, chemical textiles and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries. They let out dyes, detergents, acids, salts and heavy metals like lead and mercury, pesticides, fertilisers, synthetic chemicals with carbon, plastics and rubber, etc., into water bodies. They turn big and small rivers into toxic streams.
Dumping of wastes specially glass, harmful chemicals, industrial effluents, packaging, salts and garbage renders the soil useless due to land pollution. Rainwater percolates to into the soil carrying these pollutants and contaminates ground water.
Noise pollution is by industrial and construction activities, machineries and factory equipments, generators, saws and pneumatic and electric drills.
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