When a child is born, then he is engaged in fulfilling bestial needs. As it grows, changes are started in it according to the aspirations, beliefs and ideals of the society. Adult people are motivated by the ideals of society. We treat language. Language has great importance in society. We have some tendencies towards individuals and things. The child has to learn all these social processes only then he will be able to develop his personality properly. According to Draver sir, “Socialization is the process by which an individual adapts to his social environment and he becomes a recognized, supportive and efficient member of this social environment.”
According to anthropologists such as Margaret Mead and Linton, the process of embracing the culture of a group is called socialization. Cultures include traditions, habits, habits, knowledge, art and folklore etc. of a group.
Ross states that socialization involves the development of a sense of camaraderie and ability in individuals and the desire to work collectively.
According to Cook, the result of the process of socialization is that the child automatically accepts social responsibility and contributes to the development of society.
Elements of Socializing
Socialization of the child takes place everywhere in the school, family and community. Thus many elements work in the process of socialization. Here we will briefly consider some key elements.
(1) Family – Family is the basic unit of society. The child is born in the family and this is where his development begins. He comes in contact with parents, siblings, uncles and aunts, grandparents etc. All these give the family ideals to the concerned child. In this way, the child gets to know the family practices. This is the initial attempt of socialization. The child attempts to learn social qualities such as cooperation, renunciation etc. by staying in the family.
(2) Festivals – Many types of social and religious festivals are celebrated in India. On the days of Holi, people forget each other and embrace each other. During Dussehra, people gather in thousands at one place to witness the battle of Rama-Ravana. People light their house by worshiping Ganesh-Lakshmi during Diwali. On 15 August and 26 January and 2 October, people celebrate by organizing meetings, chakha and takli competition and bhajan-kirtan. The child learns the qualities of cooperation, rivalry etc. by participating in all these festivals. He learns to celebrate happiness collectively.
(3) School – School is a very important element in socialization. It is a social process. The school is the formal agency of this process. Therefore, the school is in a position to introduce the children to social culture and to evaluate the social practices and inspire the creation of a new society. School is also a type of society. Here, there is social interaction between students and teachers, between teachers, between students and principals, and between teachers and principals.
In socializing the child, special attention can be paid to the following things in the school-
(1) To arrange group work in school, organize drama, debate, group education etc.
(2) To provide various other opportunities for collective interaction, such as increasing interaction between school and society.
(3) To impart education of social skills and social experiences. Letter writing, companionship, telephone usage etc. are similar skills.
(4) To instill a sense of social discipline. To arrange social control through moral and social values.
(5) To inculcate a healthy sense of social respect and disdain in the form of punishments and rewards.
(6) Make students ambitious according to their abilities so that they try to become good fathers, good businessmen or officers.
(7) Sports – Sports also socialize the child. There is a natural display of social interaction in the game. This is the philosophy of healthy struggle and healthy competition. It is the game that gives emotion, not to create a psychosis on the basis of win-win. The spirit of cooperation also develops naturally. There is no discrimination on the basis of caste and community among the participants in sports. There is no other discrimination among the players.
(8) Scouting and Girl guiding – Girl socializing has special importance in scouting and girl socialization in child socialization. Scouting eliminates caste, community and even narrow nationality. Scouting provides many opportunities for children to do group work. Scouting introduces children to a variety of social interactions by playing games to find their partner and find the enemy.
(9) Children and children like to live and play with their peers. They form a group of their own. This group sometimes works in secret. These children remain very loyal to the groups. Sometimes they have their own code-words which the old members use to make that new member acquaint themselves with the things of their peers. Children ridicule other children by doing this. In these seminars, the child learns the qualities of cooperation, loyalty, rules etc. Thus child seminars are a great help in socializing the child.