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Minerals and energy resources
- Minerals : These are homogeneous naturally occurring substances normally found in solid, liquid and gaseous state.
- Types of Minerals : Metallic and non-metallic.
- Metallic Minerals : further sub-divided into ferrous and non-ferrous.
- Ferrous (containing iron) are iron ore, manganese ore, chromite, pyrite, nickel and cobalt.
- Non-ferrous (containing metals other than iron) — gold, silver, copper, lead, bauxite, tin and magnesium.
- Non-metallic Minerals : They are limestone, nitrate, potash, mica, gypsum, coal, petroleum.
- Distribution of Minerals :
- Iron Ore : Basic mineral, backbone of industrial development. There are four varieties of iron ore :
- magnetite (contains 70% iron) — Finest quality, with magnetic properties.
- haematite (contains 60% to 70% iron) – Most important industrial iron are.
- limonite (contains 40% to 60% iron)
- siderite (contains 40% to 50% iron)
Magnetite and Haematite : These are found in Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Orissa, Karnataka and Maharashtra.
Well-known iron ore mines : Durg and Bastar districts of Chhattisgarh, Paschimi and Purbi Singhbhum districts of Jharkhand, Sundargarh, Keonjhar and Mayurbhanj districts of Orissa, North Goa, Chikmagalur and Bellary districts of Karnataka, Ratnagiri of Maharashtra.
- Manganese Ore :
Use : Manganese ore is used for making iron and steel and preparing alloys. It is used to manufacture bleaching powder, insecticides, paints and batteries.
Reserves : The main reserves of manganese ore are found in Karnataka, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Maharashtra and Goa. 97% of India’s manganese ore is mined in the states of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
- Copper :
Use — Copper is used for making utensils, electric wires and alloys.
Distribution — 90% of the copper reserves are concentrated in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
- Bauxite : It is an ore from which aluminium is obtained. Aluminium is used in manufacturing of aeroplanes, utensils and other household goods.
Distribution : Jharkhand, Orissa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Orissa is the largest producer (45%) Panchpatmali deposits in Koraput, Orissa and Amarkantak, Maikal hills, Bilaspur-Katni plateau regions are important.
- Mica :
Use — It is used in electrical and electronic industries. Distribution — Jharkhand, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan.
- Limestone is composed of calcium carbonate or calcium and magnesium carbonates.
Use — Limestone is used in the cement industry, smelting of iron and in chemical industries. Distribution — Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Karnataka and Himachal Pradesh.
- Conservation of Minerals : They are non-renewable — should be conserved.
- Wastage in the process of mining and processing has to be reduced to the minimum.
- Export of minerals should be minimised.
- Substitutes should be used in order to save minerals.
- Energy Resources : The sources of energy are — Coal, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Solar Energy, Wind Energy, Hydel Energy.
( Minerals and energy resources )
Conventional Energy — Coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity. Non-Conventional Energy — Solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, atomic energy and biogas. Commercial Sources of Energy — Coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectricity and nuclear energy.
Non-Commercial Sources of Energy — Firewood, charcoal, cowdung and agricultural wastes.
- Coal :
Use — Coal is the main source of power generation in India. 67% of the country’s requirements of power is met by coal. It is used in the manufacture of iron and steel. It is also used as a raw material for the chemical industry.
Four Types of Coal — Anthracite, bituminous, lignite and peat. Anthracite : It is found only in Jharia, Jharkhand.
Bituminous : It is found in Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh.
Lignite : It is found in Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Assam, Jammu and Kashmir.
Coalfields : These are found in Jharkhand, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Orissa. Famous coal mines : Jharia in Jharkhand, Raniganj in West Bengal, Talcher in Orissa.
- Petroleum : Second most important energy source, raw materials for a number of industries.
Distribution : 63% of crude petroleum is produced from Mumbai High, 18% from Gujarat and 16% from Assam.
Small quantity of oil is also produced in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh.
Important offshore oilfields — Mumbai High, Bassein and Aliabet. Important oilfields in Gujarat — Ankleshwar, Lunej, Kalol.
Oil Refineries — Trombay, Koyali, Lunej and Kalol.
Important oilfields in Assam — Digboi, Naharkatiya, Moran, Hygrijan. Oil from these fields is refined at Digboi, Guwahati, Bongaigaon in Assam and Barauni in Bihar.
- Natural Gas : Environment friendly fuel, raw material in petrochemical industry. Distribution — Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Assam and Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Krishna-Godavari Basin.
Over 3/4th of the production comes from Mumbai High, 10% form Gujarat, 7% from Assam and the rest from Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Tripura and Rajasthan.
Minerals and energy resources – NCERT book questions
Q.1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below :
(i) Minerals are deposited and accumulated in stratas of which of the following rocks?
(a) Sedimentary rocks (b) Metamorphic rocks
(c) Igneous rocks (d) None of the above
- Koderma in Jharkhand is the leading producer of which one of the following minerals?
(a) Bauxite (b) Mica (c) Iron ore (d) Copper
(iii) Which of the following minerals is contained in the Monazite sand?
(a) Oil (b) Uranium (c) Thorium (d) Coal
- Which one of the following mineral ores is formed by decomposition of rocks, leaving a residual mass of weathered materials?
(a) Coal (b) Bauxite (c) Gold (d) Zinc
Q.2. Answer the following questions briefly.
- Distinguish between ferrous and non-ferrous minerals. Give examples. Ans. Metallic minerals can be classified into ferrous and non-ferrous minerals.
|Ferrous Minerals||Non-Ferrous Minerals|
|(i)||Metallic minerals containing iron are called||Metallic minerals that contain metals other than|
|ferrous minerals.||iron are non-ferrous minerals.|
|(ii)||They account for about three-fourths of||India’s reserves and production of non-ferrous|
|the total value of production of metallic||minerals is not very satisfactory.|
|minerals in India.|
|(iii)||Iron ore, manganese, chromite, tungsten,||copper, lead, tin, bauxite, gold are examples of|
|nickel and cobalt are examples of ferrous||non-ferrous minerals as they do not contain iron.|
- What factors make the production of solar energy convenient in India? What are its uses? Name the largest solar plant of India.
Why do you think that solar energy has a bright future in India.
Ans. India is a tropical country and it has enough scope for the production and utilisation of solar energy. Most of the regions of India record high temperatures, especially during the summer months. The scorching heat of the sun is tapped for productive purposes by using photovoltaic technology which converts sunlight directly into electricity.
The western parts of India, especially the Thar deserts region, receive undisturbed sunshine for most parts of the year. This area has great potential for development of energy and can be utilised as the largest solar power house of India.
Solar energy is becoming fast popular in different parts of the country, especially in rural and remote areas. It can be used for cooking, heating of water, pumping, refrigeration, street lighting and room heating in cold areas. The largest solar plant of India is located at Madhapur near Bhuj in Gujarat. The solar energy is used to sterilise milk cans.
(iii) State the facts about coal found in India with reference to the following : Distribution of coal in India.
Ans. The major resources of metallurgical coal belong to the Gondwana age and are located mainly in the north eastern part of the peninsula. Rich reserves of coal are found in the Damodar Valley region in the states of West Bengal and Jharkhand. Raniganj in West Bengal and Jharia and Bokaro in Jharkhand are important coalfields. One third of the total production comes from here.
Coal is also found in the Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys. Korba in Chhattisgarh, Singrauli and Penah-kanhan valley in Madhya Pradesh, Talcher in Orissa, Kamptee and Chandrapur in Maharashtra and Singareni of Andhra Pradesh are important coal mines.
Tertiary coal occur in the north eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland. Principal lignite reserves are found in Neyveli in Tamil Nadu. ( Minerals and energy resources )
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