Need Theory – Need Theory of Personality is propounded by Henry Murray. According to this theory, it is because of the need of the individual that he behaves in a particular way under particular circumstances Needs create a situation of disequilibrium within an individual. Behaviour of an individual is very much influenced by the disequilibrium so developed in him. In other words whenever an individual feels lacking in something, he is prompted to come into action. It is expressed through his behaviour.
Murray has divided the needs of man into the following two categories:
(i) Primary Needs: These are the basic needs of a man. For instance, food, water, air, etc. These needs are easily fulfilled. Behaviour of an individual does not undergo any particular change on account of these needs.
(ii) Secondary Needs: These needs arise because of the psychological nature of an individual. These are:
According to Murray, secondary needs are more powerful. These arise again and again. Man’s behaviour turns intense because of them. These needs go a long way in building the personality of an individual. Corresponding to rise or fall in these needs, there is change in the behaviour and personality of individuals.
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