Principles Of Learning – Hello friends, today we are going to share 7 most important principles of learning.
(1) Principle of Discrimination:
According to this principle, by discriminating between two situations a person learns to respond positively or negatively. For example, a manager has four subordinates. All are having equal ability and work in a similar environment. Two out of them work magnificently while the other two are poor workers. The manager will have a positive response towards the former and negative response towards the latter. This behaviour of the manager will encourage the workers doing inferior work to improve the quality of their work. If the manager does not learn anything from the present situation he will behave in a similar fashion with all. As a result of this, workers doing inferior work will not improve.
(2) Principle of Generalisation:
This principle is absolutely different from the principle of discrimination. In case of the principle of discrimination the difference between the two situations is observed while in case of the principle of generalisation, the two situations are seen as the same According to the principle of generalisation, if some earlier situation takes place in future, the response of the person happens to be the same as was the case in the earlier situation. He looks at both the situations as being similar. In other words, he generalises the situations. Because of generalisation the person does not have to learn anew in order to face the situation. Instead his old experience serves him well.
(3) Principle of Extinction: ( Principles Of Learning )
According to this principle, if the response is not connected with the result, the response becomes extinct. For example, if a manager appreciates the work done by his subordinates (meaning response), gives them bonus (means results) to motivate them, the desire to lean will be sharpened in them. They will learn more and more and work better. On the contrary, if the work done by the subordinates is not related to the results, their willingness to learn will gradually disappear or become extinct. As a result of it efficiency will suffer.
Pavlov pointed out in his experiment that when the dog was shown a piece of meat along with sounding the bell, saliva dropped from its mouth. After this saliva dropped from its mouth at the sounding of only the bell. When this activity is repeatedly shown, the saliva stops dropping. In other words, in the absence of result (food), response does not appear. This absence of response is called extinction.
(4) Principle of Spontaneous Recovery:
This principle is linked with the principle of extinction. According to this principle, in the position of extinction the learned response is not completely extinct but instead is suppressed. This principle shows that when after some interval when the response is associated with results, its affect starts becoming apparent. It means that the work starts getting completed quickly and efficiently. On the basis of the experience of Pavlov when the sounding of bell is not accompanied by the show of the piece of meat and this activity is repeated time and again, the response gets stopped (dropping of saliva). But after some days when only the bell is sounded in front of the dog, his learned activity gets refreshed and it starts dropping saliva only on the sounding of the bell. The principle of spontaneous Recovery is based on the same fact.
(5) Principle of Effect: ( Principles Of Learning )
According to this principle of learning, a person learns something on the basis of the effect of the activity. The effect of the activity is either satisfying or not satisfying. If the effect happens to be satisfying the person learns that activity and repeats it. On the contrary, if the effect is not satisfying the person does not learn it and neither does he repeat it. Therefore, a person learns some activity because it gives him satisfaction.
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(6) Principle of Readiness:
According to this principle, a person can learn when he is physically and mentally ready to learn. When he is ready to learn without any pressure from outside, only then learning becomes possible. Readiness strengthens his resolve to learn.
(7) Principle of Exercise: ( Principles Of Learning )
According to this principle, if an activity learnt by an individual is repeated, it gets strengthened. This principles is based on the fact that if the learnt activity is repeated time and again, it gets strengthened and it gets fixed in the mind of the learner. This principle is based on the fact that ‘practice makes a man perfect’.