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Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as ‘Resource’.
Types of Resource
- On the basis of origin – biotic and abiotic
- On the basis of exhaustibility – renewable and non-renewable
- On the basis of ownership – individual, community, national and international
- On the basis of status of development – potential, developed stock and reserves.
- Biotic Resources obtained from biosphere and have life such as human beings, flora and fauna, fisheries, livestock etc.
- All those things which are composed of non-living things are called abiotic resources. For example, rocks and metals.
- Renewable Resources can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes For example, solar and wind energy, water, forests and wildlife, etc.
- Non-Renewable Resources occur over a very long geological time. Minerals and fossil fuels are examples of such resources. These resources take millions of years in their formation.
- Individual Resources are owned privately by individuals. Example: Many farmers own land which is allotted to them by government against the payment of revenue.
- Community Owned Resources are resources which are accessible to all the members of the community. Example: Village commons (grazing grounds, burial grounds, village ponds, etc.) public parks, picnic spots,playgrounds in urban areas etc.
- National Resources Technically, all the resources belong to the nation. The country has legal powers to acquire even private property for public good.
- International Resources are international institutions which regulate some resources. The oceanic resources beyond 200 km of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to open ocean and no individual country can utilise these without the concurrence of international institutions.
- Potential Resources: Resources which are found in a region, but have not been utilised. For example, the western parts of India particularly Rajasthan and Gujarat have enormous potential for the development of wind and solar energy, but so far these have not been developed properly.
- Developed Resources Resources which are surveyed and their quality and quantity have been determined for utilisation.
Development of Resource
Resources are vital for human survival as well as for maintaining the quality of life. It was believed that resources are free gifts of nature. Human beings used them indiscriminately and this has led to the following major problems:
- Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of few individuals.
- Accumulation of resources in few hands, which, in turn, divided the society into two segments i.e. haves and have nots or rich and poor.
- Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has led to global ecological crises such as, global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land degradation.