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Resources and development class 10 notes
- Resource : Natural endowments in the form of land, water, vegetation and minerals are called natural resources. Resources are materials which can be transformed in such a way that they become more valuable and useful for fulfilling human needs.
- Types of Resources : Resources are classified into various categories such as natural and human-made, renewable and non-renewable, individual, community, national and international resources.
- Natural and Human-Made or Man-Made Resources : Natural resources include land, soil, water, vegetation, wildlife, minerals and power resources. Resources created by humans are called human-made resources like engineering, technology, mac ines, buildings, monuments, paintings and social institutions.
- Biotic and Abiotic Resources : Resources obtained from the biosphere like forests, wildlife, fisheries, livestock, human beings, etc., which have life, are called biotic resources. Resources which are obtained from non-living things re called abiotic resources. Iron, copper, gold and lead are abiotic resources.
- Human Resources : These resources are made up of the human beings living in the world. They are the most important resource of a nation.
- Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources : Some resources have the ability to renew themselves in a given period of time. Plants and animals have the ability to regenerate. Minerals are non-renewable resources. They cannot be remade. Some of the important renewable resources are water, f rests, solar, wind and tidal energy.
- Resource Development : Some natural resources cannot be used directly. While using the natural resources, we must keep in mind the nature, type and the size of the resources. Ocean water, solar energy, wind energy and climate are inexhaustible resources. Iron, tin, copper, gold and silver are exh ustible but reusable resources. We must reuse and recycle the resources.
- Resource Planning : This is a technique or skill of proper utilisation of resources. Resource planning consists of three stages —
- Preparation of inventory of resources — This stage includes surveying, mapping and measurement of characteristics and properties of resources.
- Evaluation in terms of availability for development — This stage includes the examination of resources from the point of view of technology, economy and need.
( Resources and development class 10 notes )
- Planning of exploitation of resources — This stage is related with systematic planning which emphasises on the use and reuse of the resources. Resource planning helps to reduce wastage and keeps the environment pollution free.
- Conservation of resources — The management of resources by the humans is known as conservation. It is the judicious and planned use of the natural resources.
- Land resources — India has a variety of relief features like mountains, plateaus and plains. 43% of the country is covered by plains and they provide cultivable land for growing crops. 30% of the country is covered by mountains and they provide natural resources like forests and wildlife. 27% of the country is covered by plateaus which contain mineral resources, forests and some arable land.
- Total area of India is 3.28 million square kilometres. 44% of the total land area of India is the net sown area. 22% is covered by forests, 4% is culturable waste, 11% is fallow land, 4% are permanent pastures, 14% land is not available for cultivation and 1% is covered by miscellaneous tree crops.
- The landuse pattern in India is determined by both physical factors such as topography, climate, soil types as well as human factors such as population density, technological capability, and culture and traditions etc.
- The degradation of natural vegetation is caused by overgrazing by animals, deforestation, careless management of forests and degradation of land. At present, about 130 million hectares of degraded land exists in India.
- Soil : The uppermost layer of the earth’s crust, which is loose, fragme ted and useful for plants is called soil.
- Soil Formation : The factors that contribute to the formation and fertility of the soil are parent rocks, climate, plant, animal and local topography. The oils are made out of rocks. The rocks disintegrate and decompose under the processes of weathering and erosion.
- Soil Types : The soils of India are classified into the following types —
l Alluvial Soil 2 Black Soil 3 Red Soil 4 Laterite Soil 5 Mountain Soil 6 Desert Soil.
- Alluvial Soil : It is of two types — khadar and It is found mainly in the Northern Plains and Coastal Strips of the Eastern Coast.
- Black Soil : It is derived from the Deccan Traps. It occurs in areas like Maharashtra, Western Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. It is known for the cultivation of cotton.
- Red Soil : It is formed in areas of ign ous and metamorphic rocks. It is found in parts of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Prades , Orissa and Jharkhand.
- Laterite Soil : It is the intensively leached soil of the monsoon climate. It is found in the hills of the Deccan, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa and parts of Assam and Meghalaya.
- Mountain Soil : It is characterised by the deposition of organic materials derived from the vegetative cover. It is found in Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern ranges, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and J mmu and Kashmir.
- Desert Soil : It is found in the arid areas of Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana.
- Soil Erosion : The removal of soil from one place to another by some natural agent is called soil erosion. Conservation of lands and plantation of trees are the methods adopted to reduce soil erosion.
Resources and development class 10 notes – NCERT Book question and answer
Q.1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below :
(i) Which of the following types of resource is iron-ore?
(a) Renewable (b) Biotic (c) Flow (d) Non-renewable Ans. (d) Non-renewable
(ii) Under which of the following types of resource can tidal energy be put?
(a) Replenishable (b) Human-made (c) Abiotic (d) Non-recyclable
Ans. (a) Replenishable
(iii) Which one of the following is the main cause of land degradation in Punjab?
(a) Intensive cultivation (b) Deforestation (c) Over-irrigation (d) Overgrazing
Ans. (c) Over-irrigation
(iv) Which of the following types of soil is found in the river deltas of the Eastern Coast?
|(a) Black soil||(b) Laterite soil||(c) Red soil||(d) Alluvial soil|
|Ans. (d) Alluvial soil|
|(v)||In which one of the following states is terrace cultivation practised?|
|(a) Punjab||(b) Plains of Uttar Pradesh|
|(c) Haryana||(d) Uttarakhand|
|Ans. (d) Uttarakhand|
|Q.2. Answer the following questions briefly.|
|(i)||Which soil is ideal for growing cotton?|
|Ans.||Black soil is ideal for growing cotton and so it is also nown as black cotton soil.|
|(ii)||Name three states having black soil.|
|Ans.||Maharashtra, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh are three states having black soil.|
Q.3. What are biotic and abiotic resources, Give ome examples.
Classify resources on the basis of origin. Explain them in brief along with examples.
Ans. On the basis of origin, resources can be classified into biotic and abiotic resources.
Biotic resources are substances btained from living beings. They include flora, i.e., vegetation, fauna, i.e., birds, fishes, domestic and wild life as well as human beings. Everything within the biosphere, which has some utility for man, is a biotic resource.
Abiotic resources are composed of non-living substances. They include air, water, land or soil, rocks and minerals in the earth’s crust. They occur as solid, liquid or gaseous materials on the earth and its atm sphere.
( Resources and development class 10 notes )
Q.4. Explain the landuse pattern of India and why has land under forest not increased much since 1960–61. What is the impact of the decrease of land under permanent pastures?
Ans. The total geographical area of India is 3.28 million sq. km. Landuse data are available for only 93 per cent of the total area because landuse reporting for most of the north-eastern states except Assam have not been fully done and the areas of Jammu and Kashmir under occupation of our neighbouring countries could not be surveyed. The present landuse pattern shows :
- Forests – 22.57 percent much below the desired 33 percent as outlined in the National Forest Policy of 1952.
- Land not available for cultivation
- Barren and wasteland – 6.29 percent
- Land put to non-agricultural uses, e.g., buildings, roads, factories, etc. 7.92 percent of total area
- Other uncultivated land (excluding fallow land)
- Permanent pastures and grazing land has decreased to 3.45 percent.
- Area under miscellaneous tree crops, groves (not included in net sown area) 1.10 percent
- Culturable wasteland (left uncultivated for more than five agricultural years) 4.41 percent
- Fallow lands.
- Current fallows (left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year) 7.03 percent
- Other than current fallow 3.82 percent
- Net Sown Area 43.41 percent but the pattern varies greatly from state to state.
The land under forest has not increased since 1960–61 because in the post-independence era demand for more land to expand agriculture, mainly after Green Revolution, developmental works and infrastructural facilities, led to cle r nce of forests areas. Industrialisation and urbanisation also decreased the forest area. Afforestation due to the concern of ecological balance led to marginal expansion from 18.11 per cent in 1960–61 to 22.57 percent in 2002–03 but it is much below the desired 33 percent of geographical area as outlined in the National Forest Policy.
The decrease of land under permanent pastures h ve grave impact. If grazing or pasture lands decrease, rearing of animals and livestock becomes difficult as there is less grazing land to feed the animals. This affects progress in livestock rearing and brings down production of the animal husbandry sector. It also decreases alternative sources of income for the farmers.
Q.5. Suggest measures of soil conservation in hilly and mountainous areas.
Ans. In hilly and mountainous areas the following measures can control soil erosion and help in soil conservation.
Contour ploughing or ploughing along the contour lines of a highland can decelerate the flow of water down the slopes.
Terrace cultivation or cutting of steps around the slopes to provide land for agriculture also checks downhill flow of water and controls soil erosion, e.g., as in Western and Central Himalayan regi n.
Afforestation or planting of trees in the hilly regions can help in soil conservation.
Q.6. How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources? Ans. Technical and economic development involves more utilisation and exploitation of resources for the purpose of present development. According to Gandhiji, the greedy and selfish individuals and exploitative nature of modern technology are the root cause for resource depletion at global level. The history of colonisation reveals that it was primarily the higher level of technological development of the colonising countries that helped them to exploit resources of other regions and establish their supremacy over the colonies.
Economic development takes place through more and proper utilisation of available resources for the purpose of advancement of present generation. Technical development makes the resources accessible and usable and aids in further exploitation as well as creation of new resources. As a whole, more and more of the natural endowments are put to use.
With economic development the capacity of accessing or consuming of resources by the people increases and technical development makes further resources available at their disposal.
Hence, technical and economic development lead to more and more consumption of resources.
( Resources and development class 10 notes )
Q.7. Which is the most widely spread and important soil of India? State any six characteristics of this type of soil.
Ans. Alluvial soil is the most fertile, widely spread and important soil of India.
The six main characteristics of this soil type are :
- Alluvial soil is riverine soil, transported and deposited by rivers. So they are also called transported soil.
- Alluvial soil consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay. They are coarse in upper reaches of the river valley and finest at the deltas.
- Alluvial is very fertile and regions with alluvial soil are agriculturally most productive and densely populated.
- They mostly contain adequate proportion of potash, phosp oric acid and lime.
- According to their age alluvial soil is divided into new alluvium or khadar which is fine, sandy and fertile and older alluvium or bangar which is clayey, dark in colour, contains kankar nodules and is less fertile.
- Alluvial soil forms the Northern Plains. The soil h s been deposited by the three great Himalayan river systems – the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. They are also found in the Eastern Coastal Plains, mainly in the deltas of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri rivers.
This rich soil is ideal for growth of paddy, wheat, sugarcane and other cereals and pulses. ( Resources and development class 10 notes )
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