CLASS 10

Sectors Of Indian Economy Class 10 Notes – Social Science Economics

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' Sectors Of Indian Economy Class 10 ' ' Sectors Of Indian Economy Class 10 Notes ' ' Notes of Sectors Of Indian Economy Class '

Sectors Of Indian Economy Class 10

  • All activities that give an income in return are called economic activities. Example, people going for work in factories, banks, schools, etc.

 

  • Economic activities can be classified into different sectors on the basis of nature of work.

 

  • Primary sector : Goods which are produced by exploiting natural resources come under the category of primary sector. This sector is also called agriculture and related sector, e.g. – cotton which is a natural product.

 

  • Secondary sector : Transformation of one good into another comes under the category of secondary sector. Manufacturing is one of the important components of this sector. Example : Transformation of sugarcane into sugar.

 

  • Tertiary sector : All production units producing services which help in the development of primary and secondary sectors come under the catego y of tertiary sector. This is also known as service sector.

 

  1. Example – Services given by doctors, teacher , lawyers etc.

 

  • These three sectors are highly interdependent on one another. This can be explained with the help of an example : Farmers buy goods such as tractors, pumpsets, fertilisers (manufacturing sector) to produce agricultural goods (primary sector). This shows dependence of primary sector n sec ndary sector. Now farmers want to sell their output. For this, they need transport facilities. It shows dependence of primary sector on tertiary sector.

 

  • There are thousands of goods and services produced in an economy. We cannot add different types of goods in pr ctice. So the value of these goods and services should be used rather adding up the actual numbers. Comparison can be d ne among these three sectors on the basis of value of final goods and services produced.

 

  • The value of final goods and services produced in each sector during a particular year provides the total production of the sector for that year and the sum of production in these sectors gives us gross domestic product (GDP) of a country.

 

  • Tertiary sector has emerged as the largest sector because it helps in the development of primary and secondary sectors. Several services such as hospitals, banks, insurance companies, transport, educational institutions are the basic services which are required by primary and secondary sectors for their normal functioning.

 

  • Organised sector covers those enterprises or places of work where the terms of employment are regular. They are registered by the government and have to follow its rules and regulations. Therefore people have job security.

 

  • Unorganised sector covers small and scattered units which are largly outside the control of the government. There are rules and regulations but they are generally not being implemented by the unorganised sector. Employment is not secure in the unorganished sector.

 Sectors Of Indian Economy Class 10

  • In unorganised sector protection and support is required for the workers for their economic and social development. Besides getting irregular and low paid work, they also face social discrimination.

 

  • Public sector is the sector which is owned, controlled and managed by the government. Activities in the government sector are guided by the motive of soci l welfare and not to earn profit.

 

  • In private sector ownership of production units is in the ands of private individuals. Activities in the private sector are mainly guided by the motive to earn profit. Example : TISCO and RIL.

 

  • Employment is an activity from which a person ea ns the means of living, i.e. income in cash or in kind.

 

  • Unemployment refers to a situation where the persons who are able to work and are willing to work, fail to secure work.

 

  • Underemployment is a situation in which a worker gets work for less time than the time he can work. In other words, he remains unemployed for some months is a year or some hours everyday.

 

  • There was a big change in the sha e of three sectors in G.D.P. (from 1973 to 2000) but data show that such similar shift has not been taken place in terms of employment.

 

  1. In secondary sector output went up by 8 times but in terms of employment it rose up by only 2.5 times.

 

  1. In tertiary sect r output went up 11 times whereas employment rose up 3 times.

 

  • Government can create more employment opportunities by providing better infrastructure such as roads, dams, canals etc. Further, this can be enhanced by providing services like banks, transport and communication.

 Sectors Of Indian Economy Class 10

  1. Set up industries that process vegetables and agricultural produce like potatoes, rice, wheat, tomato, fruits which can be sold in outside markets. This will provide employment in industries located in semi-rural areas.

 

  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme-2005 (NREGA-2005)

This act is implemented as “Right to Work” in all the 604 districts of India. Under this act, all those who are able to work and are in need of work have been guaranteed 100 days of employment in a year by the government. However, only one person per family is entitled to this benefit.

Sectors Of Indian Economy Class 10 – NCERT Book Questions

Q.1. Economy classified into organised and unorganised sectors is based on

  • economic activities
  • employment conditions
  • ownership
  • type of goods and services produced

Ans. (b)

 

Q.2. Which sector provides security of employment?

(a)  unorganised sector                                                (b) organised   ector

(c)  private sector                                                           (d) terti ry sector

Ans. (b)

 

Q.3. What does the history of developed countries indicate about the shifts that have taken place between sectors?

Ans.  (i)   Initially, primary sector was the main economic activity.

  • Due to improved methods of farming, productivity of agriculture sector increased. Therefore, more persons were aking up other activities like trading, transport, army etc.
  • Secondary sector became m st important sector for production and employment over a period of time. This was a shift from primary to secondary sector by the labour.
  • In developed countries a further shift from secondary sector to tertiary sector has been observed in the p st 100 years. Major portion of working population is engaged in the service sect r.

In conclusion in developed economies, tertiary sector has gained an important position.

Sectors of the Indian Economy Class 10

Q.4. For each of the sectors that we come across in this chapter why should one focus on employment and GDP? Could there be other issues which should be examined? Discuss.

Ans. There was a big change in the share of three sectors in GDP (from 1973 to 2000) but data show that a similar shift has not taken place in terms of employment.

  • In secondary sector output went up by 8 times but in terms of employment it rose up by only 2.5 times.
  • In tertiary sector output went up 11 times whereas employment rose up 3 times.

So we see that people are shifting from primary sector to secondary and tertiary sectors. This is an indication of progressing on the path of development.

 

Q.6. The table below shows the estimated number of workers in India in the organised and unorganised sectors. Read the table carefully. Fill the missing data and answer the questions that f ll w.Workers in Different Sectors (in Millions)

SectorOrganisedUnorganisedTotal
Primary2240242
Secondary95463
Tertiary177693
Total28370398
Total in percentage7%93%100%

Which is the most important sector that provides most jobs to the people? 

  • What is the number of persons engaged in the unorganised sector?
  • Why is the unorganised sector more important? Give one reason.

Sectors of the Indian Economy Class 10

(iv)  Which is the most important organised sector? Give one reason.

Ans.   

(i) The primary sector is the most important sector that provides most jobs to the people.

(ii) The number of person engaged in the unorganised sector is 370 million.

  • Unorganised sector is more important because it provides employment to a far greater number of people, specially from lower strata of society, when compared to those employed by the organised sector.
  • Tertiary sector is the most important organised sector because it employs more people when compared to primary and secondary sectors. In addition, it is the backbone which further boosts the growth of primary and secondary sectors. For example, infrastructure and communication help in smooth flow of goods and services across the country.

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