CLASS 10

Water Resources Class 10 Notes With Exam Questions

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WATER RESOURCES CLASS 10 CONCEPT

  • The main source of water on earth is the hydrological cycle.
  • India receives nearly 4% of the global precipitation to rank 133rd in the world in terms of water availability per person per annum.
  • If water is not conserved, by 2025 a large part of India will face water scarcity.
  • Water scarcity is caused by over-exploitation, excessive use of and unequal access to water among different social groups.
  • In India, most of the energy required to run industries comes from hydroelectric power.
  • The water around us needs to be conserved and managed to safeguard ourselves from health hazards, to ensure food security, continuation of our livelihoods and productive activities, and also to prevent degradation of our natural ecosystem.
  • The multipurpose projects are meant to tackle v rious problems associated with river valleys in an integrated manner.
  • They help to control flood, check soil erosion, provide water for irrigation and drinking purposes, generate electricity for industrie , villages, cities, provide inland navigation, help in preservation of wildlife and development of fisheries.
  • Damodar Valley Corporation — built on iv Damodar — beneficiary states are Jharkhand and West Bengal.
  • Bhakra Nangal — built on river Su lej — beneficiary states are Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh
  • Hirakud — built on river Mahanadi — beneficiary state is Orissa.
  • Kosi — built on river Kosi — beneficiary state is Bihar and our neighbouring country Nepal.
  • Chambal Valley — built on river Chambal — beneficiary states are Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.
  • The greatest example of integrated water management is the building of multipurpose river projects.
  • These include the dam which is built not just for irrigation and flood control but also for generation of hydroelectricity for industrial uses, recreation, inland navigation and fish breeding.
  • Many such projects have caused environmental damages by inducing earthquakes, destroying natural habitats, causing water-borne diseases and water pollution.
  • Rainwater harvesting is a technique of increasing the recharge of groundwater by capturing and storing rainwater by constructing wells, percolating pits and check dams.

( water resources class 10 )

        The main objectives of the rainwater harvesting are :

  1. to meet the increasing demand of water.
  2. to reduce runoff.
  3. to avoid the flooding of roads.
  4. to augment the groundwater storage and raise the water table. 
  5. to reduce groundwater pollution. 
  6. to improve the quality of groundwater.
  • to supplement domestic water requirement during summer and long dry spells.
  • Many thought that given the disadvantages and rising resistance against the multipurpose projects, water harvesting system was a viable alternative, both socio-economically and environmentally.
  • People had in-depth knowledge of rainfall regimes and soil types and developed wide ranging techniques to harvest rainwater, groundwater, river water and floodwater in keeping with the local ecological conditions and their water needs.
  • Rooftop rainwater harvesting has been done in Rajasthan, Meghalaya, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu on a regular and vast basis

WATER RESOURCES CLASS 10 – NCERT QUESTIONS

Q.1.  Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below :

  • Water becomes a renewable and recha geable resource due to which of the following reasons?

(a) Water table                                                                 (b)  Hydrological cycle

(c) Oceans and seas                                                      (d)  Surface runoff

Ans. (b)   Hydrological cycle

  • Which of the following statements is not an argument in favour of multipurpose river projects?
  • Multipurpose projects bring water to those areas which suffer from water scarcity.
  • Multipurp se projects help to control floods by regulating water flow.
  • Multipurp se projects lead to large scale displacements and loss of livelihood.
  • Multipurpose projects generate electricity for our industries and our homes.

Ans. (c)   Multipurpose projects lead to large scale displacements and loss of livelihood.

Q.2. Based on the information given below, classify each of the situations as ‘suffering from water scarcity’ or not suffering from water scarcity.

  • Region with high annual rainfall.

— Not suffering from water scarcity – because it receives good natural freshwater supply which is renewed annually during the rainy periods.

  • Region having high annual rainfall and large population.

— Suffering from water scarcity, because large population means more requirement of water for foodgrain production, industrialisation and urbanisation as well for domestic consumption which exhaust available water resources due to over-exploitation.

  • Regions having high annual rainfall but water is highly polluted.

— Suffering from water scarcity – because the available fresh water sources, inspite of being renewed, are rendered useless due to pollution. Pollution turns the water sources toxic and they become hazardous and unusable for human consumption.

  • Regions having low rainfall and low population.

— Not suffering from water scarcity – because the low demand for water by lower population compensates for the low water availability.

 

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Q.3. Here are some false statements. Identify the mistakes and rewrite them correctly.

  • Multiplying urban centres with large and dense population and urban lifestyle have helped in proper utilisation of water resources.

Correct : Multiplying urban centres with large and dense population and urban lifestyles have not only added to water and energy requirements but have further aggravated the problem.

  • Regulating and damming of rivers do not affect the river’s atural flow and its sediment flow.

Correct : Regulating and damming of rivers affect the river’s natural flow causing poor sediment flow.

  • In Gujarat, the Sabarmati basin farmers were not agit ted when higher priority was given to water supply in urban areas, particularly du ing droughts.

Correct : In Gujarat, the Sabarmati basin farmers were agitated and almost caused a riot when higher priority was given to water supply in urban areas, particularly during droughts.

  • Today in Rajasthan, the practice of ooftop rainwater water harvesting has gained popularity despite high water availability due to Rajasthan Canal.

Correct : Today in Rajasthan, the practice of rooftop rainwater harvesting is on the decline on account of high water availabili y due to Rajasthan Canal.

 

Q.4. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of multipurpose river projects.

Ans. Multipurpose river projects provide us with multiple benefits like (i) irrigation (ii) hydroelectricity for out industries and homes (iii) water for domestic and industrial use regulating flow of w ter nd helping (iv) flood control (v) recreational facilities (vi) inland navigation and (vii) pisciculture and (viii) soil conservation through afforestation. The many purposes for which the impounded water of the these present day dams termed as multipurpose projects, are used, integrates progress of agriculture with rapid industrialisation. They bring water to those areas which suffer from water scarcity. But the multipurpose river projects have come under great scrutiny in recent times because of

  • their failure to fulfil their basic objectives like flood control and the disadvantages resulting out of building of such projects. (ii) Regulating and damming of rivers affect the natural flow of the rivers, cause exessive sedimentation and adversely affect aquatic life. (iii) The reservoirs that are created in the floodplains overflow and submerge the existing vegetation and soil, consequently leading to their decomposition. (iv) Multipupose projects lead to large scale displacement of local communities and to loss of their livelihood (v) Excessive use of water, and over-irrigation on account of the projects lead to land degradation and cause waterborne disease, pests and pollution.

Q.5.     Three-fourths of the world is covered with water and water is a renewable resource. Yet many countries and regions around the globe suffer from water scarcity. Explain

OR

What is water scarcity and what are its main causes?

Ans. Shortage in the availability of usable water resource is known as water scarcity. Three-fourth of the world is covered with water. But out of that 96.5 percent of water is estimated to exist as oceans and seas which are saline in nature and unfit for general use. Only 2.5 percent of the total volume of the world’s water exists as freshwater. Though water is continuously renewed and recharged by the hydrological cycle, it is also being continuously used by the ever increasing population. Overuse and often misuse is leading to scarcity of this valuable resource. Hence, many countries and regions around the globe suffer from water scarcity.

Regions of low and erratic and uncertain rainfall face water scarcity. But water scarcity may be faced also in regions of high rainfall if the population is large. A large population means more requirement of water for producing more food, more consumption of water for domestic purposes and for expanding industries. These exhaust the available w ter resource and create water scarcity.

In some areas unequal access to water among different social groups creates water scarcity. Pollution of existing water bodies due to discharge of industri l effluents and wastes, spoil the available water and create water scarcity.

 

( water resources class 10 )

Q.6. Describe how modern adaptations of traditional inw ter harvesting methods are being carried out to conserve and store water.

Ans. Rooftop rainwater harvesting in Gendathur village of Mysore, Karnataka is an example of modern adaptation of traditional rainwater ha vesting methods being carried out to conserve and store water. Gendathur is a remot , backward village in Mysore, Karnataka, which has earned the rare distinction of being rich in rainwater because of successful rainwater harvesting by the villagers.

Gendathur receives an annual p ecipitation of 1000 mm. The villagers have utilised this rainwater to meet their water need by collecting it throught rooftop rainwater harvesting system in their individual houses. Nearly 200 households in the village have installed the system. As such, with 80 percent of co lection efficiency of the annual precipitation and about 10 fillings of rain, every house in Gendathur can collect and use about 50,000 litres of water annually. The net amount f rainwater estimated to be harvested annually from all the households amount to 10,00,000 litres.

Tamil Nadu is the first and the only state of India which has made modern rooftop rainwater harvesting structure compulsory to all houses acrosss the state.

Recharging of groundwater by means of dug wells, pits, handpumps etc., is a new concept of rainwater harvesting being adopted in many areas to conserve and store water.

 

Q.7. Discuss how rainwater harvesting in semi-arid regions of Rajasthan is carried out.

Ans. In some of the semi-arid regions of Rajasthan, agricultural fields were converted into rain-fedstorage structures that allowed water to stand and moisten the soil. These structures are locally known as ‘johads’. In the arid areas of Jaisalmer such structures are known as ‘Khadins’. In the semi-arid and arid regions of Rajasthan, particularly in Bikaner, Phalodi and Barmer, almost all the houses, traditionally, had big underground tanks called ‘tankas’ for storing drinking water.

The tankas were part of the well-developed rooftop rainwater harvesting system. The tanks could be as large as a big room, one household in Phalodi had a tank that was 6.1 metres deep,

  • 4.27 metres long and 2.44 metres wide. Rainwater, commonly known as ‘palar pani’ in local language, is considered as the purest form of natural water in this region and was stored for drinking purpose.
  • The water was collected by channelising rainwater through pipes from the sloping rooftop to the underground tanks built inside the house or courtyard.
  • The first spell of rain was usually not collected as it would clean the roofs and pipes. As a result it would be dirty, and unfit for drinking purpose.
  • The rainwater from the subsequent showers was then collected and stored in the tankas till the next rainfall, making it an extremely reliable source of drinking water when all others sources dried up, particularly during summers.
  • Many houses constructed underground rooms adjoining the tankas to combat the summer heat as it would keep the rooms cool naturally.
  • The practice of rainwater harvesting, is however, declining in Western Rajasthan at present because the perennial Indira Gandhi Canal or Rajasthan Canal provides plenty of water to the region, throughout the year.                                        ( water resources class 10 )

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